I've completely failed to produce any further update since, but concertina history has moved on quickly, with other contributors (like Randy Merris, Stephen Chambers, Dan Worral, Chris Flint, Geoff Crabb and many more) producing in-depth articles on the subject. This page is an updated section of the original article at This update remains here for historical reasons, but is also a reminder on how little we knew (and how little was available) only a short time ago. Updating the article has proved difficult because of the rate at which new information has been appearing.
It was therefore possible for someone to set up as a manufacturer if they had enough knowledge of the suppliers. A bunch of interesting stuff happened in 1876, including key industrial revolution innovations in the internal combustion engine, the telephone, and the mimeograph machine! It’s amazing that they have all the Wheatstone sales ledgers, so they might be able to tell who first bought this one that year.As a boy he was very shy and sensitive, liking well to retire into an attic, without any other company than his own thoughts.When he was about fourteen years old he was apprenticed to his uncle and namesake, a maker and seller of musical instruments at 436 Strand, London; but he showed little taste for handicraft or business, and loved better to study books.